There are a number of tests helpful for detecting varied diabetes along with gestational, type 2, and type 1 diabetes. This blog covers every type of diabetes in detail, along with the efficient tests for accurately detecting them. Even results and procedure of the tests are also included with the home testing kits. So, read on to know them.
Type 2 diabetes is generally detected by a number of tests recommended by the doctor. In this medical issue, the body secretes enough insulin but unable to utilize it efficiently.
The most common option of diabetes testing in London is the A1c test. Typically, the doctor represents this test as the glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c, or hemoglobin A1c test.
It takes the measurement of the blood sugar (glucose) molecules, which are attached to the Red Blood Cells (RBCs) components, i.e., hemoglobin.
The test report of the A1c test shows the average level of blood sugar for the last 3 months. If the report states the level is above 5.7%, then it clearly indicates the consistent increase of glucose amount in the blood.
There is no necessity of fasting prior to perform this test as it only comprises collecting a small amount of blood sample. Diabetes can be diagnosed easily by the doctor on the basis of the report of the A1c test. However, it is only effective in detecting type 2 diabetes.
Fasting Plasma Glucose Test
FPG (Fasting Plasma Glucose) test needs fasting of the person for long 8 hours by refraining from the consumption of any drink or food. That’s why it is generally scheduled early in the morning. Usually, a “finger-stick” test or drawing a blood sample from an arm vein is involved in the procedure of this test.
Random Plasma Glucose Test
RPG (Random Plasma Glucose) test is comprised of drawing blood either by finger pricking or from the arm vein. The basic differentiation within an FPG test and this test are it doesn’t need any preparation or fasting for the test.
Type 1 diabetes is really troublesome to diagnose. This medical condition occurs in the body as it fails to secrete sufficed insulin, an essential hormone responsible for processing blood sugar. If it is left untreated for long then, it can heighten the rise of the glucose level extremely high.
At that time, the only treatment option available to control it is injecting insulin. If there is any suspicion of type 1 diabetes doctor will extensively look for its potential flu-like symptoms along with extreme fatigue.
Following tests are mainly used by the doctor:
- A1c: It is reliable in indicating an average level of blood sugar for the last 3 months. However, it cannot offer accurate results to people with type 1 diabetes.
- Oral glucose tolerance test: This test requires fasting and drinking of the solution with a high content of glucose. Then the blood sugar level will be measured every hour or the next 2-3 hours.
- FPG: It determines how properly glucose is processed by the body.
In case, the obtained report is inconclusive then, the patient may advise undergoing any of the given tests:
- C-peptide: Pancreas assists in producing this protein, including insulin. The low level of this protein clearly indicates a low insulin level in the blood.
- Insulin antibodies: This test is helpful for checking the functional ability of protein for targeting and destroying insulin.
- Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Autoantibodies: Doctors suggest this test for the evaluation of the function of antibodies to destroy enzymes in the insulin-producing cells.
- Insulinoma-Associated 2 Autoantibodies: These antibodies incorporate in the indication that the body attacks the insulin-producing cells.
- Islet Cell Cytoplasmic Autoantibodies: Most people with type 1 diabetes possess this antibody type in the body.
- Zinc Transport 8: This test determines the antibodies which will kill the insulin-producing beta cells.
A conclusive diagnosis is only obtained on analyzing the reports of several diabetes tests.
Gestational diabetes in pregnant women is usually diagnosed by 2 tests by the doctors. They are discussed below for your reference:
Glucose challenge test
As per the NIDDK, this full blood count test in London is performed within 24-28 weeks of pregnancy by the doctor. Actually, it is the very first test of gestational diabetes.
This test comprises drinking a beverage with a high content of glucose. After an hour, the blood will be drawn by the healthcare professional to determine the glucose level.
If the report states the amount of glucose is 135 mg/dl or above, it will indicate that your body unable to process the glucose properly.
For the confirmation of the diagnosis of gestational diabetes, sometimes you may be suggested to perform an oral glucose tolerance test too.
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
This test is specifically designed for women for fasting for long 8 hours before providing the blood sample. Later, the person can drink any glucose beverage, which is essential for evaluating the blood sample after 2 hours. This will help in determining the level of glucose in the blood. If the level of glucose remains consistently high throughout the period, it is a clear indication of gestational diabetes.
Several tests are there which can be carried at home by the individual itself. Some of the options are mentioned below for your reference:
Blood Sugar Testing
The home testing kit is also reliable in measuring the level of blood sugar. Though the kits’ specific components differ from one another yet widely they are included with:
- Test strips for collecting the blood sample
- Lancets to prick the fingertips
- A device, known as a glucometer, for evaluating the sample and take the measurement
Only a doctor can recommend the targeted blood sugar level of an individual on the basis of several factors. Even they can let you know which report indicates the essentiality of urgent medical attention.
Urine Ketone Testing
Another kind of home test is also available that helps in detecting the level of Ketones in the body. Ketone is basically resulted from breaking down of fats for the sake of energy.
It clearly indicates that the human body possesses too little insulin. These kits are widely available in pharmacies.
The procedure involves the collection of urine samples and insertion of the given strips into the sample. This strip is helpful in indicating the level of ketones in the body. Accordingly, you can feel the need to seek medical attention on an immediate basis.
As per NIDDK, the given ranges are normal for diabetes test reports. At the time of diagnosis, doctors majorly prefer to use these recommended ranges.
- Normal: below 5.7%
- Diabetes:5% or above
- Normal:99 mg/dl or less
- Prediabetes:100–125 mg/dl
- Diabetes:126 mg/dl or above
When the diabetic level rises 200 mg/dl or above, the individual is suffering from diabetes.
Any walk-in GP or an experienced doctor can offer the information regarding further diabetes tests along with the purposes. Mostly diabetes tests are comprised of the blood tests even there is the urine ketone test for indicating if the insulin level is perfect or not in the body.
Apart from effective diagnosis procedures, doctors may suggest you perform some of the above-mentioned tests for tracking the efficiency of the diabetes care plan of the individual.